About Daniel Duke

Fulbright Scholar in Nuclear Science & Technology 2011

From fuel injection to medical inhalers

“Millions of people around the world rescue their health, daily, with asthma inhalers. The device is life-saving, but curiously inefficient for a technology that has been around for more than 60 years. The uneven spread and size of particles, combined with the different ways people use the inhaler, means drug delivery can often be just 25 per cent of what it should be.

Inhalers release a turbulent jet of vapour, not dissimilar to what you would see in an engine fuel injector, and in fact it’s this sideways leap in thinking that led to engineers from Australia and the US turning their engine and aerospace expertise to this medicine.”

Read more here: https://lens.monash.edu/@monash-magazine/2017/10/24/1229942/turbo-charged-medicine




My expertise is in the scientific study of multi-phase fluid flows, and the application of advanced optical and x-ray diagnostics to these problems.

Multi-phase flows are any combination of two or more phases of matter (i.e. solid, liquid, and gas) moving together. There’s a lot we don’t yet know about how these kinds of fluid flows behave, because they are very difficult to experiment on. You can’t make a scale model of the fluid flow like you can with a car in a wind tunnel, and when you shine light through most multiphase flows, it scatters a lot, and this makes it very hard to make accurate observations. We’re addressing these challenges by developing new ways to use synchrotron x-ray light, advanced laser diagnostics, and computer models.

Understanding how multi-phase flows behave is essential to the development of technologies that we rely on every day. For example, multi-phase flows determine:

  • How well your athsma inhaler works – Aerosol and powder inhalers involve small droplets or particles moving in air. The turbulence of the air, among other factors, makes the particles’ size and positions very difficult to predict.
  • How efficiently your car engine runs – The fuel injectors in an engine create a fine mist which is then burned. The spray quality directly affects power output and pollutant formation. The fuel can even boil or cavitate inside the injector, wearing out the components.
  • How energy efficient your air conditioner is – The refrigerant fluid inside an AC, fridge or freezer boils and is re-condensed over and over. The dynamics of this process affect how much energy it uses and how long the parts will last before they wear out.

A better understanding of multi-phase flows will help us to make these technologies more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly, as well as expand our understanding of how the natural world works. These problems are becoming more important as the number of people worldwide using technologies like those listed above is rapidly increasing. At the same time, our society is becoming increasingly aware of the environmental cost of energy consumption and air pollution.

isoAlphaFrac50pc_Ucol4.0047.pngComputer simulation of fuel cavitating inside a model of a fuel injector nozzle. Credit: D. Duke, C. Powell & D. Schmidt. The simulation was performed on the “Blues” cluster at Argonne National Laboratory.

Screen Shot 2017-04-16 at 2.18.00 PMMie-scatter image of a spray produced by a pressurised metered-dose medical inhale. Credit: N. Mason-Smith, D. Edgington-Mitchell, D. Honnery, D. Duke & J. Soria (2015). Proc. TSFP-9 Int Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena.

Screen Shot 2017-04-16 at 2.01.42 PM

Computer simulation (top row) and high speed images from laboratory test (bottom row) of a flash-boiling gasoline fuel injection spray. Credit: E. Baldwin, R. Grover, S. Parrish, D. Duke, K. Matusik, C. Powell, A. Kastengren and D. Schmidt (2016). Int J Multiphas Flow 87 pp. 90-101.

© 2017